RECENT ARTICLES in Emergency Medicine & Critical Care Pharmacotherapy
May 2023 - Murphy LR, Hill TP, Paul K, et al. Tenecteplase Versus Alteplase for Acute Stroke: Mortality and Bleeding Complications [published online ahead of print, 2023 May 11]. Ann Emerg Med. 2023;S0196-0644(23)00214-7. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.03.022
May 2023 - Qureshi I, Abdulrashid K, Thomas SH, Abdel-Rahman ME, Pathan SA, Harris T. Comparison of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) to intravenously or intramuscularly administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids for patients presenting with moderate to severe acute pain conditions to the ED: systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2023 May 12]. Emerg Med J. 2023;emermed-2022-212869. doi:10.1136/emermed-2022-212869
March 2023 - Zaki HA, Ibrahim T, Osman A, Elnabawy WA, Gebril A, Hamdi AH, Mohamed EH. Comparing the Safety and Effectiveness of Ketamine Versus Benzodiazepine/Opioid Combination for Procedural Sedation in Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis. Cureus. 2023 Mar 27;15(3):e36742. doi: 10.7759/cureus.36742. PMID: 37123736; PMCID: PMC10132230.
Pubmed Central (Open Access)
Tenecteplase Versus Alteplase for Acute Stroke: Mortality and Bleeding Complications
Murphy LR, Hill TP, Paul K, et al. Tenecteplase Versus Alteplase for Acute Stroke: Mortality and Bleeding Complications [published online ahead of print, 2023 May 11]. Ann Emerg Med. 2023;S0196-0644(23)00214-7. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.03.022
#tenecteplase, #alteplase, #stroke, #fibrinolytics
Abstract (Murphy 2023)
Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase has been the foundation of initial treatment of acute ischemic stroke for several decades. Tenecteplase is a thrombolytic agent that offers logistical advantages in cost and administration relative to alteplase. There is evidence that tenecteplase has at least similar efficacy and safety outcomes compared with alteplase for stroke. In this study, we compared tenecteplase versus alteplase for acute stroke in a large retrospective US database (TriNetX) regarding the following 3 outcomes: (1) mortality, (2) intracranial hemorrhage, and (3) the need for acute blood transfusions.
In this retrospective study using the US cohort of 54 academic medical centers/health care organizations in the TriNetX database, we identified 3,432 patients treated with tenecteplase and 55,894 patients treated with alteplase for stroke after January 1, 2012. Propensity score matching was performed on basic demographic information and 7 previous clinical diagnostic groups, resulting in a total of 6,864 patients with acute stroke evenly matched between groups. Mortality rates, the frequency of intracranial hemorrhage, and blood transfusions (as a marker of significant blood loss) were recorded for each group over the ensuing 7- and 30-day periods. Secondary subgroup analyses were conducted on a cohort treated from 2021 to 2022 in an attempt to determine whether temporal differences in acute ischemic stroke treatment would alter the results.
Patients treated with tenecteplase had a significantly lower mortality rate (8.2% versus 9.8%; risk ratio [RR], 0.832) and lower risk of major bleeding as measured by the frequency of blood transfusions (0.3% versus 1.4%; RR, 0.207) than alteplase at 30 days after thrombolysis for stroke. In the larger 10-year data set of patients with stroke treated after January 1, 2012, patients receiving tenecteplase were not found to have a statistically different incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (3.5% versus 3.0%; RR, 1.185) at 30 days after the administration of the thrombolytic agents in patients. However, a subgroup analysis of 2,216 evenly matched patients with stroke treated from 2021 to 2022 demonstrated notably better survival and statistically lower rates of intracranial hemorrhage than the alteplase group.
In our large retrospective multicenter study using real-world evidence from large health care organizations, tenecteplase for the treatment of acute stroke demonstrated a lower mortality rate, decreased intracranial hemorrhage, and less significant blood loss. The favorable mortality and safety profiles observed in this large study, taken together with previous randomized controlled trial data and operational advantages in rapid dosing and cost-effectiveness, all support the preferential use of tenecteplase in patients with ischemic stroke.
Comparison of IV acetaminophen to IV or IM administered NSAIDs or opioids for patients presenting with moderate to severe acute pain conditions to the ED: systematic review and meta-analysis
Qureshi I, Abdulrashid K, Thomas SH, Abdel-Rahman ME, Pathan SA, Harris T. Comparison of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) to intravenously or intramuscularly administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids for patients presenting with moderate to severe acute pain conditions to the ED: systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2023 May 12]. Emerg Med J. 2023;emermed-2022-212869. doi:10.1136/emermed-2022-212869
#acetaminophen, #paracetamol, #pain, #NSAIDS, #ketorolac
Abstract (Qureshi 2023)
Paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opiates/opioids, administered parenterally via intravenous or intramuscular route, are widely used to provide analgesia for patients with moderate to severe pain. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the level of analgesia provided by intravenous paracetamol (IVP) alone compared with NSAIDs (intravenous or intramuscular), or opioids (intravenous) alone in adults attending the ED with acute pain.
Two authors independently searched PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, Embase (OVID), Cochrane Library, SCOPUS and Google Scholar (3 March 2021-20 May 2022) for randomised trials without any language or date restriction. Clinical trials were evaluated using the Risk of Bias V.2 tool. The primary outcome was mean difference (MD) for pain reduction at 30 min (T30) post analgesia delivery. The secondary outcomes were MD in pain reduction at 60, 90 and 120 min; the need for rescue analgesia; and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs).
Twenty-seven trials (5427 patients) were included in the systematic review and 25 trials (5006 patients) in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in pain reduction at T30 between the IVP group and opioids (MD -0.13, 95% CI -1.49 to 1.22) or IVP and NSAIDs (MD -0.27, 95% CI -1.0 to 1.54. There was also no difference at 60 min, IVP group versus opioid group (MD -0.09, 95% CI -2.69 to 2.52) or IVP versus NSAIDs (MD 0.51, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.91). The quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development and Evaluations methodology was low for MD in pain scores.The need for rescue analgesia at T30 was significantly higher in the IVP group compared with the NSAID group (risk ratio (RR): 1.50, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.83), with no difference found between the IVP group and the opioid group (RR: 1.07, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.70). AEs were 50% lower in the IVP group compared with the opioid group (RR: 0.50, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.62), whereas no difference was observed in the IVP group compared with the NSAID group (RR: 1.30, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.15).
In patients presenting to the ED with a diverse range of pain conditions, IVP provides similar levels of pain relief compared with opiates/opioids or NSAIDs at T30 post administration. Patients treated with NSAIDs had lower risk of rescue analgesia, and opioids cause more AEs, suggesting NSAIDs as the first-choice analgesia and IVP as a suitable alternative.
Etomidate as an induction agent for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients
Kotani Y, Piersanti G, Maiucci G, et al. Etomidate as an induction agent for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients: A meta-analysis of randomized trials [published online ahead of print, 2023 Apr 29]. J Crit Care. 2023;77:154317. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2023.154317
EMDrugs is currently reviewing this new article and other sources to make a decision on a potential warning update in the etomidate description.
Abstract (Kotani 2023)
We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate if etomidate impacted mortality in critically ill adults when compared with other induction agents.
Materials and methods
We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials which compared etomidate with any other induction agent in critically ill adult patients undergoing endotracheal intubation. The primary outcome was mortality at the main timepoint defined by the study. We conducted a fixed-effects meta-analysis for the risk ratio. Using that risk ratio and 95% confidence interval, we then estimated the probability of any harm (RR > 1) and the number needed to harm ≤100 (RR ≥ 1.05).
We included 11 randomized trials comprising 2704 patients. We found that etomidate increased mortality (319/1359 [23%] vs. 267/1345 [20%]; risk ratio (RR) = 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.33; P = 0.03; I2 = 0%; number needed to harm = 31). The probabilities of any increase and a 1% increase (NNH ≤100) in mortality were 98.1% and 92.1%, respectively.
This meta-analysis found a high probability that etomidate increases mortality when used as an induction agent in critically ill patients with a number needed to harm of 31.
Intravenous Magnesium As An Adjunct To Standard Of Care For Treatment Of Atrial Fibrillation
Tchouapi PC, Anderson KE, Hein PN. "Intravenous Magnesium As An Adjunct To Standard Of Care For Treatment Of Atrial Fibrillation With Rapid Ventricular Response" [published online ahead of print, 2023 Apr 6]. Acad Emerg Med. 2023;10.1111/acem.14734. doi:10.1111/acem.14734
#magnesium, #AFIB, #atrial_fibrillation
No open access abstract available
Comparing the Safety and Effectiveness of Ketamine Versus Benzodiazepine/Opioid Combination for Procedural Sedation in Emergency Medicine
Zaki HA, Ibrahim T, Osman A, Elnabawy WA, Gebril A, Hamdi AH, Mohamed EH. Comparing the Safety and Effectiveness of Ketamine Versus Benzodiazepine/Opioid Combination for Procedural Sedation in Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis. Cureus. 2023 Mar 27;15(3):e36742. doi: 10.7759/cureus.36742. PMID: 37123736; PMCID: PMC10132230.
Pubmed Central (Open Access)
#ketamine, #benzodiazepines, #opioids, #analgosedation, #sedation
Adverse events reported in the current study included vomiting and nausea, visual hallucination, laryngospasm, apnea, and oxygen desaturation requiring intervention (Figure 6).
Abstract (Zaki 2023)
Procedural sedation is essential in the ED to conduct painful procedures effectively. Ketamine and benzodiazepines/opioids are commonly used, with ketamine providing adequate analgesia and preserving airway muscle tone. However, ketamine is associated with adverse effects while benzodiazepines/opioids can lead to respiratory depression. This study compares the safety and efficacy of ketamine and midazolam/fentanyl.
Two search methods were used to identify studies related to our topic, including a database search and a manual search involving screening reference lists of articles retrieved by the database search. A methodological quality appraisal was conducted on the articles suitable for inclusion using Cochrane’s risk of bias tool in the Review Manager software (Review Manager (RevMan) (Computer program). Version 5.4, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2020). Moreover, pooled analysis was performed using the Review manager software.
The study analyzed 1366 articles, of which seven were included for analysis. Pooled data showed that ketamine and midazolam/fentanyl had similar effects on pain scores during procedures and sedation depth measured by the University of Michigan sedation scale. However, the Modified Ramsay Sedation Score showed significantly more profound sedation in the ketamine group. The only significant adverse events were vomiting and nausea, which had a higher incidence in the ketamine group.
Our data suggest that ketamine is as effective as the midazolam/fentanyl combination for procedural sedation but is associated with higher incidences of adverse events. Therefore, midazolam/fentanyl can be recommended for procedural sedation in the ED. However, it should be provided in the presence of a physician comfortable with airway management due to high incidences of oxygen desaturation.
Hydrocortisone in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Dequin PF, Meziani F, Quenot JP, et al. Hydrocortisone in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia [published online ahead of print, 2023 Mar 21]. N Engl J Med. 2023;10.1056/NEJMoa2215145. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2215145
Abstract (Dequin 2023)
Whether the antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids may decrease mortality among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia is unclear.
In this phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned adults who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe community-acquired pneumonia to receive intravenous hydrocortisone (200 mg daily for either 4 or 8 days as determined by clinical improvement, followed by tapering for a total of 8 or 14 days) or to receive placebo. All the patients received standard therapy, including antibiotics and supportive care. The primary outcome was death at 28 days.
A total of 800 patients had undergone randomization when the trial was stopped after the second planned interim analysis. Data from 795 patients were analyzed. By day 28, death had occurred in 25 of 400 patients (6.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 8.6) in the hydrocortisone group and in 47 of 395 patients (11.9%; 95% CI, 8.7 to 15.1) in the placebo group (absolute difference, -5.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.6 to -1.7; P = 0.006). Among the patients who were not undergoing mechanical ventilation at baseline, endotracheal intubation was performed in 40 of 222 (18.0%) in the hydrocortisone group and in 65 of 220 (29.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.86). Among the patients who were not receiving vasopressors at baseline, such therapy was initiated by day 28 in 55 of 359 (15.3%) of the hydrocortisone group and in 86 of 344 (25.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.82). The frequencies of hospital-acquired infections and gastrointestinal bleeding were similar in the two groups; patients in the hydrocortisone group received higher daily doses of insulin during the first week of treatment.
Among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia being treated in the ICU, those who received hydrocortisone had a lower risk of death by day 28 than those who received placebo.
European Stroke Organisation recommendation on tenecteplase for acute ischemic stroke
Alamowitch S, Turc G, Palaiodimou L, et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) expedited recommendation on tenecteplase for acute ischaemic stroke. Eur Stroke J. 2023;8(1):8-54. doi:10.1177/23969873221150022
Pubmed Central (Open Access)
Abstract (Alamowitch 2023)
Within the last year, four randomised-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have been published comparing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with tenecteplase and alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) patients with a non-inferiority design for three of them.
An expedited recommendation process was initiated by the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) and conducted according to ESO standard operating procedure based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) framework.
We identified three relevant Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome (PICO) questions, performed systematic reviews of the literature and meta-analyses, assessed the quality of the available evidence, and wrote evidence-based recommendations. Expert consensus statements were provided if insufficient evidence was available to provide recommendations based on the GRADE approach.
For patients with AIS of <4.5 h duration who are eligible for IVT, tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg can be used as a safe and effective alternative to alteplase 0.9 mg/kg (moderate evidence, strong recommendation). For patients with AIS of <4.5 h duration who are eligible for IVT, we recommend against using tenecteplase at a dose of 0.40 mg/kg (low evidence, strong recommendation).
For patients with AIS of <4.5 h duration with prehospital management with a mobile stroke unit who are eligible for IVT, we suggest tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg over alteplase 0.90 mg/kg (low evidence, weak recommendation).
For patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) AIS of <4.5 h duration who are eligible for IVT, we recommend tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg over alteplase 0.9 mg/kg (moderate evidence, strong recommendation).
For patients with AIS on awakening from sleep or AIS of unknown onset who are selected with non-contrast CT, we recommend against IVT with tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg (low evidence, strong recommendation).
Expert consensus statements are also provided. Tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg may be favoured over alteplase 0.9 mg/kg for patients with AIS of <4.5 h duration in view of comparable safety and efficacy data and easier administration.
For patients with LVO AIS of <4.5 h duration who are IVT-eligible, IVT with tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg is preferable over skipping IVT before MT, even in the setting of a direct admission to a thrombectomy-capable centre. IVT with tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg may be a reasonable alternative to alteplase 0.9 mg/kg for patients with AIS on awakening from sleep or AIS of unknown onset and who are IVT-eligible after selection with advanced imaging.
Webinar presentation of ESO Expedited Recommendation on Tenecteplase for Acute Ischaemic Stroke by S. Alamowitch. 2023.
Emergency Department management of patients with alcohol intoxication
Strayer RJ, Friedman BW, Haroz R, et al. Emergency Department Management of Patients With Alcohol Intoxication, Alcohol Withdrawal, and Alcohol Use Disorder: A White Paper Prepared for the American Academy of Emergency Medicine [published online ahead of print, 2023 Mar 28]. J Emerg Med. 2023;S0736-4679(23)00011-2. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2023.01.010
JEM (Open Access)
#alcohol, #intoxication, #benzodiazepines (EN), #benzodiacepinas (ES)
(Open access table)
Introduction (Strayer 2023)
Alcohol is the most-used intoxicant in the world, and the repercussions of unhealthy alcohol use are of corresponding magnitude. A sixfold increase in all-cause mortality and 6% of overall deaths are related to the use of alcohol, which is the most important risk factor for ill health among working-age people worldwide. Alcohol intoxication (AI) is strongly tied to serious trauma (especially motor vehicle collisions), suicide, domestic abuse and sexual assault, and crime, and thousands of Americans die from alcohol poisoning every year. In addition to the myriad medical consequences of chronic alcohol use, addiction to alcohol—suffered by over 14 million Americans—leads to the destruction of relationships, families, and social function, including unemployment and homelessness. Mortality among patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) increased by over 20% in 2020 and 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
As with other conditions that cause medical, psychological, and social deterioration, patients with AUD present frequently to the emergency department (ED) for care. Alcohol-related ED visits are rapidly escalating, and these patients are at high risk for poor outcomes, especially frequent presenters for care, nearly 1 in 10 of whom will die within 1 year. The routine nature of these visits and the gradual pace of their decline conceals this risk; alcohol-related presentations in many centers are so common, and alcohol use so broadly accepted, that its impact is easily overlooked, when, in fact, every harm caused by alcohol is preventable.
Because so many patients with, or at risk for, AUD access care in the ED and often only in the ED, emergency physicians are uniquely positioned to meaningfully intervene on the ruinous trajectory of alcoholism by identifying at-risk drinking and initiating effective treatment. This may include withdrawal management, addressing comorbid medical, social, substance, or psychiatric conditions, referral to a mutual help organization, prescription of anticraving medications, or mobilizing community-based wraparound care. This guideline aims to reduce alcohol-related harms by providing consensus-based, evidence-supported recommendations for clinicians in acute care settings who manage patients with AUD or at risk for AUD, including the management of AI and alcohol withdrawal.
Abstract (Hmidan 2023)
Standard dose (≤ 1 g) tranexamic acid (TXA) has established mortality benefit in trauma patients. The role of high dose IV TXA (≥2 g or ≥30 mg/kg as a single bolus) has been evaluated in the surgical setting, however, it has not been studied in trauma. We reviewed the available evidence of high dose IV TXA in any setting with the goal of informing its use in the adult trauma population.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and unpublished sources from inception until July 27, 2022 for studies that compared standard dose with high dose IV TXA in adults (≥ 16 years of age) with hemorrhage. Screening and data abstraction was done independently and in duplicate. We pooled trial data using a random effects model and considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies separately. We assessed the individual study risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational cohort studies. The overall certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation).
We included 20 studies with a combined total of 12,523 patients. Based on pooled RCT data, and as compared to standard dose TXA, high dose IV TXA probably decreases transfusion requirements (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 0.97, moderate certainty) but with possibly no effect on blood loss (mean difference [MD] 43.31 ml less, 95% CI 135.53 to 48.90 ml less, low certainty), and an uncertain effect on thromboembolic events (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.04, very low certainty) and mortality (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.32, very low certainty).
When compared to standard dose, high dose IV TXA probably reduces transfusion requirements with an uncertain effect on thromboembolic events and mortality.
Level of evidence: Systematic review and meta-analysis, level IV.
Keywords: Hemorrhage; High dose; Mortality; Surgery; Thrombo-embolism; Tranexamic acid; Transfusion requirements; Trauma.
Pharmacotherapy in ventricular arrhythmias
Apte N, Kalra DK. Pharmacotherapy in Ventricular Arrhythmias [published online ahead of print, 2023 Mar 6]. Cardiology. 2023;10.1159/000529670. doi:10.1159/000529670
Karger (Open Access - accepted unedited manuscript)
#flecainide, #propafenone, #amiodarone, #lidocaine, #procainamide, #quinidine, #sotalol, #magnesium
Pharmacokinetic alterations in the critically ill
Morales Castro D, Dresser L, Granton J, Fan E. Pharmacokinetic Alterations Associated with Critical Illness [published online ahead of print, 2023 Feb 2]. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2023;1-12. doi:10.1007/s40262-023-01213-x
Pubmed Central (Open Access)
#pharmacokinetics, #criticalcare, #intensivecare, #pharmacology
Acute management of migraine
Tzankova V, Becker WJ, Chan TLH. Diagnosis and acute management of migraine. CMAJ. 2023;195(4):E153-E158. doi:10.1503/cmaj.211969
Can Med Assoc J (Open Access)
#migraine, #triptans, #acetapinophen, #NSAIDs, #metoclopramide, #neurology, #headache
Epinephrine in OHCA - Network Meta-Analysis, shockable and non-shockable rythms
Fernando SM, Mathew R, Sadeghirad B, et al. Epinephrine in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest - A Network Meta-Analysis and Subgroup Analyses of Shockable and Non-Shockable Rhythms [published online ahead of print, 2023 Jan 31]. Chest. 2023;S0012-3692(23)00165-4. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2023.01.033
#epinephrine, #cardiacarrest, #OHCA, #ROSC, #survival, #functional_outcome
IV Potassium and Magnesium in atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in the ED
Cacioppo F, Reisenbauer D, Herkner H, et al. Association of Intravenous Potassium and Magnesium Administration With Spontaneous Conversion of Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter in the Emergency Department [published correction appears in JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Nov 1;5(11):e2245392]. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(10):e2237234. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.37234
JAMA (Open Access)
#Potassium, #Magnesium, #MgSO4
IV MgSO4 for Acute Exacerbations of COPD Systematic Review
Ni H, Aye SZ, Naing C. Magnesium sulfate for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022;5(5):CD013506. Published 2022 May 26. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013506.pub2
#Magnesium sulfate, #MgSO4
Antihistamines vs benzodiazepines for acute vertigo
Hunter BR, Wang AZ, Bucca AW, et al. Efficacy of Benzodiazepines or Antihistamines for Patients With Acute Vertigo: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Neurol. 2022;79(9):846-855. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.1858
FAKT: Fentanyl vs placebo with ketamine and rocuronium for RSI in the ED
Ferguson I, Buttfield A, Burns B, et al. Fentanyl versus placebo with ketamine and rocuronium for patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department: The FAKT study-A randomized clinical trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2022;29(6):719-728. doi:10.1111/acem.14446
Pubmed Central (Open Access)
#fentanyl, #ketamine, #rocuronium, #RSI, #intubation
Article compendium The Bottom Line - FAKT
NORT-TEST 2 part A: Tenecteplase versus alteplase for the management of acute ischaemic stroke in Norway
Kvistad CE, Næss H, Helleberg BH, et al. Tenecteplase versus alteplase for the management of acute ischaemic stroke in Norway (NOR-TEST 2, part A): a phase 3, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Neurol. 2022;21(6):511-519. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00124-7
Andexanet alfa vs four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for the reversal of apixaban or rivaroxaban associated intracranial hemorrhage
Costa OS, Connolly SJ, Sharma M, et al. Andexanet alfa versus four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for the reversal of apixaban- or rivaroxaban-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a propensity score-overlap weighted analysis. Crit Care. 2022;26(1):180. Published 2022 Jun 16. doi:10.1186/s13054-022-04043-8
#PCC, #Octaplex, #Andexanet alfa, #Rivaroxaban, #Apixaban
PLUS: Balanced versus normal saline solutions in the critically ill
Finfer S, Micallef S, Hammond N, et al. Balanced Multielectrolyte Solution versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(9):815-826. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2114464
NEJM (Full Text)
#Plasma_lite, #normal_saline, #0.9%NaCl
Article compendium The Bottom Line - PLUS Study
Droperidol Emergency Medicine updates (narrative review)
Cisewski D, Long B, Gottlieb M. Emergency medicine updates: Droperidol. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;53:180-184. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2022.01.011
DOREMI: Milrinone vs Dobutamine in Cardiogenic Shock
Mathew R, Di Santo P, Jung RG, et al. Milrinone as Compared with Dobutamine in the Treatment of Cardiogenic Shock. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(6):516-525. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2026845ç
Article compendium The Bottom Line - DOREMI
Abstract (Mathew 2021)
Cardiogenic shock is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although inotropic support is a mainstay of medical therapy for cardiogenic shock, little evidence exists to guide the selection of inotropic agents in clinical practice.
We randomly assigned patients with cardiogenic shock to receive milrinone or dobutamine in a double-blind fashion. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital death from any cause, resuscitated cardiac arrest, receipt of a cardiac transplant or mechanical circulatory support, nonfatal myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack or stroke diagnosed by a neurologist, or initiation of renal replacement therapy. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary composite outcome.
A total of 192 participants (96 in each group) were enrolled. The treatment groups did not differ significantly with respect to the primary outcome; a primary outcome event occurred in 47 participants (49%) in the milrinone group and in 52 participants (54%) in the dobutamine group (relative risk, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.19; P=0.47). There were also no significant differences between the groups with respect to secondary outcomes, including in-hospital death (37% and 43% of the participants, respectively; relative risk, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.21), resuscitated cardiac arrest (7% and 9%; hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.29 to 2.07), receipt of mechanical circulatory support (12% and 15%; hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.36 to 1.71), or initiation of renal replacement therapy (22% and 17%; hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.73 to 2.67).
In patients with cardiogenic shock, no significant difference between milrinone and dobutamine was found with respect to the primary composite outcome or important secondary outcomes. (Funded by the Innovation Fund of the Alternative Funding Plan for the Academic Health Sciences Centres of Ontario; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03207165
CDC Sexually Transmited Infections Treatment Guidelines
Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021;70(4):1-187. Published 2021 Jul 23. doi:10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1
#Metronidazol, #Azithromycin, #Ceftriaxone, #Doxycycline, #Acyclovir, #Valacyclovir
Abstract (Workowski 2021)
These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were updated by CDC after consultation with professionals knowledgeable in the field of STIs who met in Atlanta, Georgia, June 11–14, 2019. The information in this report updates the 2015 guidelines. These guidelines discuss 1) updated recommendations for treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; 2) addition of metronidazole to the recommended treatment regimen for pelvic inflammatory disease; 3) alternative treatment options for bacterial vaginosis; 4) management of Mycoplasma genitalium; 5) human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) expanded risk factors for syphilis testing among pregnant women; 7) one-time testing for hepatitis C infection; 8) evaluation of men who have sex with men after sexual assault; and 9) two-step testing for serologic diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus. Physicians and other health care providers can use these guidelines to assist in prevention and treatment of STIs.
ACEP Task Force Report on Hyperactive Delirium with Severe Agitation
ACEP Task Force Report on Hyperactive Delirium with Severe Agitation in Emergency Settings. Approved by the ACEP Board of Directors, June 23, 2021.
ACEP (Open Access)
#Olanzapine, #Midazolam, #Droperidol, #Ketamine
Abstract (ACEP 2021)
Hyperactive delirium with severe agitation, a presentation marked by disorientation and aggressive words and/or actions, is an acute life-threatening medical condition that demands emergency medical treatment.
Patient safety is and must be the primary focus of emergency medical treatment of hyperactive delirium with severe agitation. • Rapidly restoring normal body physiology, facilitating a safe environment for the patient and medical professionals treating the patient, and providing the opportunity to differentiate and treat life-threatening causes of hyperactive delirium are patient-centered goals of emergency medical treatment of hyperactive delirium with severe agitation.
De-escalation techniques may be effective and should be attempted when possible.
Parenteral medications are often required to treat severe agitation. Multiple pharmacologic options exist for effective treatment of hyperactive delirium with severe agitation. There is no consensus on a single “optimal” medication at this time, but ketamine, droperidol, olanzapine, and midazolam delivered via intramuscular injection are the options best supported by current literature.
Medical treatment of hyperactive delirium with severe agitation – whether prehospital (EMS) or in-hospital (Emergency Department) should be led by a physician board certified in EMS Medicine and/or Emergency Medicine, respectively. All medical treatments must be at the decision of appropriately trained medical professionals on the physician-led care team.
Additional research is needed to more fully understand inciting pathways and distinct pathophysiology of individual causes of hyperactive delirium with severe agitation. Further research is also warranted to identify optimal medication choices, doses for those medication choices, and additional medical treatments that improve patient-centered outcomes.
NoPAC: TXA to reduce the need for nasal packing in epistaxis
Reuben A, Appelboam A, Stevens KN, et al. The Use of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce the Need for Nasal Packing in Epistaxis (NoPAC): Randomized Controlled Trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;77(6):631-640. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.12.013
ClinicalKey (Open Access)
#Tranexamic acid, #TXA
Article compendium REBELEM - NoPAC Trial
Abstract (Reuben 2021)
Epistaxis is a common emergency department (ED) presentation and, if simple first aid measures fail, can lead to a need for anterior nasal packing. Tranexamic acid is an agent that contributes to blood clot stability. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of topical intranasal tranexamic acid in adult patients presenting to the ED with persistent epistaxis, and whether it reduces the need for anterior nasal packing.
From May 5, 2017, to March 31, 2019, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, 1:1, randomized controlled trial was conducted across 26 EDs in the United Kingdom. Participants with spontaneous epistaxis, persisting after simple first aid and the application of a topical vasoconstrictor, were randomly allocated to receive topical tranexamic acid or placebo. The primary outcome was the need for anterior nasal packing of any kind during the index ED attendance. Secondary outcome measures included hospital admission, need for blood transfusion, recurrent epistaxis, and any thrombotic events requiring any hospital reattendance within 1 week.
The study sample consisted of 496 participants with spontaneous epistaxis, persisting after simple first aid and application of a topical vasoconstrictor. In total, 211 participants (42.5%) received anterior nasal packing during the index ED attendance, including 111 of 254 (43.7%) in the tranexamic acid group versus 100 of 242 (41.3%) in the placebo group. The difference was not statistically significant (odds ratio 1.107; 95% confidence interval 0.769 to 1.594; P =.59). Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences between tranexamic acid and placebo for any of the secondary outcome measures.
In patients presenting to an ED with atraumatic epistaxis that is uncontrolled with simple first aid measures, topical tranexamic acid applied in the bleeding nostril on a cotton wool dental roll is no more effective than placebo at controlling bleeding and reducing the need for anterior nasal packing.
ED-AWARENESS Study: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study of Awareness With Paralysis in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Admitted From the ED
Pappal RD, Roberts BW, Mohr NM, et al. The ED-AWARENESS Study: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study of Awareness With Paralysis in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Admitted From the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;77(5):532-544. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.10.012
Annals of Emergency Medicine (Open Access)
#NMBA, #paralysis, #awareness, #ICU, #rocuronium
Abstract (Pappal 2021)
Awareness with paralysis is a devastating complication for patients receiving mechanical ventilation and risks long-term psychological morbidity. Data from the emergency department (ED) demonstrate a high rate of longer-acting neuromuscular blocking agent use, delayed analgosedation, and a lack of sedation depth monitoring. These practices are discordant with recommendations for preventing awareness with paralysis. Despite this, awareness with paralysis has not been rigorously studied in the ED population. Our objective is to assess the prevalence of awareness with paralysis in ED patients receiving mechanical ventilation.
This was a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study on 383 mechanically ventilated ED patients. After extubation, we assessed patients for awareness with paralysis by using the modified Brice questionnaire. Three expert reviewers independently adjudicated awareness with paralysis. We report the prevalence of awareness with paralysis (primary outcome); the secondary outcome was perceived threat, a mediator for development of posttraumatic stress disorder.
The prevalence of awareness with paralysis was 2.6% (10/383). Exposure to rocuronium at any point in the ED was significantly different between patients who experienced awareness with paralysis (70%) versus the rest of the cohort (31.4%) (unadjusted odds ratio 5.1; 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 20.1). Patients experiencing awareness with paralysis had higher mean values on the threat perception scale, denoting a higher degree of perceived threat, compared with patients who did not experience awareness with paralysis (13.4 [SD 7.7] versus 8.5 [SD 6.2]; mean difference 4.9; 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 8.8).
Awareness with paralysis occurs in a significant minority of ED patients who receive mechanical ventilation. Potential associations of awareness with paralysis with ED care and increased perceived threat warrant further evaluation.
Effect of Continuous Infusion of Hypertonic Saline vs Standard Care on 6-Month Neurological Outcomes in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury
Roquilly A, Moyer JD, Huet O, et al. Effect of Continuous Infusion of Hypertonic Saline vs Standard Care on 6-Month Neurological Outcomes in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury: The COBI Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021;325(20):2056-2066. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.5561
JAMA (Open Access)
#hypertonic_saline, #saline, #TBI, #neurology
Abstract (Roquilly 2021)
Fluid therapy is an important component of care for patients with traumatic brain injury, but whether it modulates clinical outcomes remains unclear.
To determine whether continuous infusion of hypertonic saline solution improves neurological outcome at 6 months in patients with traumatic brain injury.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted in 9 intensive care units in France, including 370 patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury who were recruited from October 2017 to August 2019. Follow-up was completed in February 2020.
Adult patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury were randomly assigned to receive continuous infusion of 20% hypertonic saline solution plus standard care (n = 185) or standard care alone (controls; n = 185). The 20% hypertonic saline solution was administered for 48 hours or longer if patients remained at risk of intracranial hypertension.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary outcome was Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) score (range, 1-8, with lower scores indicating worse functional outcome) at 6 months, obtained centrally by blinded assessors and analyzed with ordinal logistic regression adjusted for prespecified prognostic factors (with a common odds ratio [OR] >1.0 favoring intervention). There were 12 secondary outcomes measured at multiple time points, including development of intracranial hypertension and 6-month mortality.
Among 370 patients who were randomized (median age, 44 [interquartile range, 27-59] years; 77 [20.2%] women), 359 (97%) completed the trial. The adjusted common OR for the GOS-E score at 6 months was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.71-1.47; P = .92). Of the 12 secondary outcomes, 10 were not significantly different. Intracranial hypertension developed in 62 (33.7%) patients in the intervention group and 66 (36.3%) patients in the control group (absolute difference, −2.6% [95% CI, −12.3% to 7.2%]; OR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.51-1.26]). There was no significant difference in 6-month mortality (29 [15.9%] in the intervention group vs 37 [20.8%] in the control group; absolute difference, −4.9% [95% CI, −12.8% to 3.1%]; hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.48-1.28]).
Conclusions and Relevance
Among patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, treatment with continuous infusion of 20% hypertonic saline compared with standard care did not result in a significantly better neurological status at 6 months. However, confidence intervals for the findings were wide, and the study may have had limited power to detect a clinically important difference.
Ketamine for Acute Agitation in the ED
Lin J, Figuerado Y, Montgomery A, et al. Efficacy of ketamine for initial control of acute agitation in the emergency department: A randomized study. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;44:306-311. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.013
Elsevier (Open Access)
Abstract (Lin 2021)
Clinicians often encounter agitated patients, and current treatment options include benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Ketamine rapidly induces dissociation, maintains cardiovascular stability, spontaneous respirations, and airway reflexes. There are no prospective, randomized studies comparing ketamine to other agents in the initial management of acute agitation in the Emergency Department (ED).
Determine the efficacy and safety of ketamine compared to parenteral haloperidol plus lorazepam for initial control of acute agitation.
This study was a prospective, single-institution, randomized, open-label, real world, standard of care pilot study. Adult patients with combative agitation were randomized to ketamine (4 mg/kg IM or 1 mg/kg IV) or haloperidol/lorazepam (haloperidol 5–10 mg IM or IV + lorazepam 1–2 mg IM or IV). The primary outcome was sedation within 5 min, and secondary outcomes included sedation within 15 min, time to sedation, and safety.
Ninety three patients were enrolled from January 15, 2018 to October 10, 2018. Significantly more patients who received ketamine compared to haloperidol/lorazepam were sedated within 5 min (22% vs 0%, p = 0.001) and 15 min (66% vs 7%, p < 0.001). The median time to sedation in patients who received ketamine compared to haloperidol/lorazepam was 15 vs 36 min respectively (p < 0.001). Patients who received ketamine experienced a significant, but transient tachycardia (p = 0.01) and hypertension (p = 0.01).
In patients with combative agitation, ketamine was significantly more effective than haloperidol/lorazepam for initial control of acute agitation, and was not associated with any significant adverse effects.
Risk of overcorrection in rapid intermittent bolus vs slow continuous infusion of hypertonic saline in symptomatic hyponatremia
Baek SH, Jo YH, Ahn S, et al. Risk of Overcorrection in Rapid Intermittent Bolus vs Slow Continuous Infusion Therapies of Hypertonic Saline for Patients With Symptomatic Hyponatremia: The SALSA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181(1):81-92. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.5519
#Hypertonic saline, #NaCl
Abstract (Baek 2021)
Few high-quality studies have clarified whether hypertonic saline is best administered as slow continuous infusion (SCI) therapy or rapid intermittent bolus (RIB) therapy for symptomatic severe hyponatremia.
To compare the risk of overcorrection in RIB and SCI with hypertonic saline in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia.
Design, setting, and participants:
This prospective, investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled 178 patients older than 18 years with moderately severe to severe hyponatremia and glucose-corrected serum sodium (sNa) levels of 125 mmol/L or less. Recruitment took place from August 24, 2016, until August 21, 2019, across emergency departments and wards of 3 general hospitals in the Republic of Korea.
Either RIB or SCI of hypertonic saline, 3%, for 24 to 48 hours stratified by the severity of clinical symptoms.
Main outcome and measures:
The primary outcome was overcorrection at any given period, defined as increase in the sNa level by greater than 12 or 18 mmol/L within 24 or 48 hours, respectively. Secondary and post hoc outcomes included efficacy and safety of the treatment approaches. The sNa concentrations were measured every 6 hours for 2 days.
The 178 patients (mean [SD] age, 73.1 [12.2] years; 80 (44.9%) male; mean [SD] sNa concentrations, 118.2 [5.0] mmol/L) were randomly assigned to the RIB group (n = 87) or the SCI group (n = 91). Overcorrection occurred in 15 of 87 (17.2%) and 22 of 91 (24.2%) patients in the RIB and SCI groups, respectively (absolute risk difference, -6.9% [95% CI, -18.8% to 4.9%]; P = .26). The RIB group showed lower incidence of relowering treatment than the SCI group (36 of 87 [41.4%] vs 52 of 91 [57.1%] patients, respectively; absolute risk difference, -15.8% [95% CI, -30.3% to -1.3%]; P = .04; number needed to treat, 6.3). Groups did not differ in terms of efficacy in increasing sNa concentrations nor improving symptoms, but RIB, when compared with SCI, showed better efficacy in achieving target correction rate within 1 hour (intention-to-treat analysis: 28 of 87 (32.2%) vs 16 of 91 (17.6%) patients, respectively; absolute risk difference, 14.6% [95% CI, 2%-27.2%]; P = .02; number needed to treat, 6.8; per-protocol analysis: 21 of 72 (29.2%) vs 12 of 73 (16.4%) patients, respectively; absolute risk difference, 12.7% [95% CI, -0.8% to 26.2%]; P = .07). The statistical significance of the intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were similar for all outcomes except for achieving the target correction rate within 1 hour.
Conclusions and relevance:
This randomized clinical trial found that both RIB and SIC therapies of hypertonic saline for treating hyponatremia were effective and safe, with no difference in the overcorrection risk. However, RIB had a lower incidence of therapeutic relowering treatment and tended to have a better efficacy in achieving sNa within 1 hour than SCI. RIB could be suggested as the preferred treatment of symptomatic hyponatremia, which is consistent with the current consensus guidelines.
NEAR-Registry. Ketamine vs Etomidate and peri-intubation hypotension
Abstract (NEAR Registry 2020)
The hemodynamic impact of induction agents is a critically important consideration in emergency intubations. We assessed the relationship between peri-intubation hypotension and the use of ketamine versus etomidate as an induction agent for emergency department (ED) intubation.
We analyzed ED intubation data for patients aged >14 years from the National Emergency Airway Registry performed in 25 EDs during 2016 through 2018. We excluded patients with preintubation hypotension (systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg) or cardiac arrest prior to intubation. The primary outcome was peri-intubation hypotension. Secondary outcomes included interventions for hypotension (e.g., intravenous fluids or vasopressors). We report adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from multivariable logistic regression models controlling for patient demographics, difficult airway characteristics, and intubation modality.
There were 738 encounters with ketamine and 6,068 with etomidate. Patients receiving ketamine were more likely to have difficult airway characteristics (effect size difference = 8.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.3% to 12.4%) and to undergo intubation with video laryngoscopy (8.1%, 95% CI = 4.4% to 12.0%). Peri-intubation hypotension incidence was 18.3% among patients receiving ketamine and 12.4% among patients receiving etomidate (effect size difference = 5.9%, 95% CI = 2.9% to 8.8%). Patients receiving ketamine were more likely to receive treatment for peri-intubation hypotension (effect size difference = 6.5%, 95% CI = 3.9% to 9.3%). In logistic regression analyses, patients receiving ketamine remained at higher risk for peri-intubation hypotension (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.7) and treatment for hypotension (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.0). There was no difference in the aOR of hypotension between patients receiving ketamine at doses ≤1.0 mg/kg versus >1.0 mg/kg or patients receiving etomidate at doses ≤0.3 mg/kg versus >0.3 mg/kg.
Pending additional data, our results suggest that clinicians should not necessarily prioritize ketamine over etomidate based on concern for hemodynamic compromise among ED patients undergoing intubation.
IV alteplase for stroke with unknown time of onset guided by advanced imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis
Abstract (Thomalla 2020)
Patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset have been previously excluded from thrombolysis. We aimed to establish whether intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in such patients when salvageable tissue has been identified with imaging biomarkers.
We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data for trials published before Sept 21, 2020. Randomised trials of intravenous alteplase versus standard of care or placebo in adults with stroke with unknown time of onset with perfusion-diffusion MRI, perfusion CT, or MRI with diffusion weighted imaging-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch were eligible. The primary outcome was favourable functional outcome (score of 0-1 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) at 90 days indicating no disability using an unconditional mixed-effect logistic-regression model fitted to estimate the treatment effect. Secondary outcomes were mRS shift towards a better functional outcome and independent outcome (mRS 0-2) at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death, severe disability or death (mRS score 4-6), and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020166903.
Of 249 identified abstracts, four trials met our eligibility criteria for inclusion: WAKE-UP, EXTEND, THAWS, and ECASS-4. The four trials provided individual patient data for 843 individuals, of whom 429 (51%) were assigned to alteplase and 414 (49%) to placebo or standard care. A favourable outcome occurred in 199 (47%) of 420 patients with alteplase and in 160 (39%) of 409 patients among controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·49 [95% CI 1·10-2·03]; p=0·011), with low heterogeneity across studies (I2=27%). Alteplase was associated with a significant shift towards better functional outcome (adjusted common OR 1·38 [95% CI 1·05-1·80]; p=0·019), and a higher odds of independent outcome (adjusted OR 1·50 [1·06-2·12]; p=0·022). In the alteplase group, 90 (21%) patients were severely disabled or died (mRS score 4-6), compared with 102 (25%) patients in the control group (adjusted OR 0·76 [0·52-1·11]; p=0·15). 27 (6%) patients died in the alteplase group and 14 (3%) patients died among controls (adjusted OR 2·06 [1·03-4·09]; p=0·040). The prevalence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the alteplase group than among controls (11 [3%] vs two [<1%], adjusted OR 5·58 [1·22-25·50]; p=0·024).
In patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset with a DWI-FLAIR or perfusion mismatch, intravenous alteplase resulted in better functional outcome at 90 days than placebo or standard care. A net benefit was observed for all functional outcomes despite an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Although there were more deaths with alteplase than placebo, there were fewer cases of severe disability or death.
HALT-IT: TXA in acute gastrointestinal bleeding
HALT-IT Trial Collaborators. Effects of a high-dose 24-h infusion of tranexamic acid on death and thromboembolic events in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (HALT-IT): an international randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2020;395(10241):1927-1936. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30848-5
The Lancet (Open Access)
Article compendium The Bottom Line - HALT-IT
Abstract (HALT-IT 2020)
Tranexamic acid reduces surgical bleeding and reduces death due to bleeding in patients with trauma. Meta-analyses of small trials show that tranexamic acid might decrease deaths from gastrointestinal bleeding. We aimed to assess the effects of tranexamic acid in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.
We did an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 164 hospitals in 15 countries. Patients were enrolled if the responsible clinician was uncertain whether to use tranexamic acid, were aged above the minimum age considered an adult in their country (either aged 16 years and older or aged 18 years and older), and had significant (defined as at risk of bleeding to death) upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients were randomly assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Patients received either a loading dose of 1 g tranexamic acid, which was added to 100 mL infusion bag of 0·9% sodium chloride and infused by slow intravenous injection over 10 min, followed by a maintenance dose of 3 g tranexamic acid added to 1 L of any isotonic intravenous solution and infused at 125 mg/h for 24 h, or placebo (sodium chloride 0·9%). Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcome was death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation; analysis excluded patients who received neither dose of the allocated treatment and those for whom outcome data on death were unavailable. This trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN11225767, and ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT01658124 .
Between July 4, 2013, and June 21, 2019, we randomly allocated 12 009 patients to receive tranexamic acid (5994, 49·9%) or matching placebo (6015, 50·1%), of whom 11 952 (99·5%) received the first dose of the allocated treatment. Death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation occurred in 222 (4%) of 5956 patients in the tranexamic acid group and in 226 (4%) of 5981 patients in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 0·99, 95% CI 0·82–1·18). Arterial thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction or stroke) were similar in the tranexamic acid group and placebo group (42 [0·7%] of 5952 vs 46 [0·8%] of 5977; 0·92; 0·60 to 1·39). Venous thromboembolic events (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were higher in tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (48 [0·8%] of 5952 vs 26 [0·4%] of 5977; RR 1·85; 95% CI 1·15 to 2·98).
We found that tranexamic acid did not reduce death from gastrointestinal bleeding. On the basis of our results, tranexamic acid should not be used for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding outside the context of a randomised trial.
Survival after IV vs IO Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Shock-Refractory Cardiac Arrest
Abstract (Daya 2020)
Antiarrhythmic drugs have not proven to significantly improve overall survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia. How this might be influenced by the route of drug administration is not known.
In this prespecified analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we compared the differences in survival to hospital discharge in adults with shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were randomly assigned by emergency medical services personnel to an antiarrhythmic drug versus placebo in the ALPS trial (Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Amiodarone, Lidocaine or Placebo Study), when stratified by the intravenous versus intraosseous route of administration.
Of 3019 randomly assigned patients with a known vascular access site, 2358 received ALPS drugs intravenously and 661 patients by the intraosseous route. Intraosseous and intravenous groups differed in sex, time-to-emergency medical services arrival, and some cardiopulmonary resuscitation characteristics, but were similar in others, including time-to-intravenous/intraosseous drug receipt. Overall hospital discharge survival was 23%. In comparison with placebo, discharge survival was significantly higher in recipients of intravenous amiodarone (adjusted risk ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.06-1.50]; adjusted absolute survival difference, 5.5% [95% CI, 1.5-9.5]) and intravenous lidocaine (adjusted risk ratio, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.02-1.45]; adjusted absolute survival difference, 4.7% [95% CI, 0.7-8.8]); but not in recipients of intraosseous amiodarone (adjusted risk ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.66-1.32]) or intraosseous lidocaine (adjusted risk ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.74-1.44]). Survival to hospital admission also increased significantly when drugs were given intravenously but not intraosseously, and favored improved neurological outcome at discharge. There were no outcome differences between intravenous and intraosseous placebo, indicating that the access route itself did not demarcate patients with poor prognosis. The study was underpowered to assess intravenous/intraosseous drug interactions, which were not statistically significant.
We found no significant effect modification by drug administration route for amiodarone or lidocaine in comparison with placebo during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, point estimates for the effects of both drugs in comparison with placebo were significantly greater for the intravenous than for the intraosseous route across virtually all outcomes and beneficial only for the intravenous route. Given that the study was underpowered to statistically assess interactions, these findings signal the potential importance of the drug administration route during resuscitation that merits further investigation.
ESETT: Three Anticonvulsants comparison for Status Epilepticus
Kapur J, Elm J, Chamberlain JM, et al. Randomized Trial of Three Anticonvulsant Medications for Status Epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(22):2103-2113. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1905795
NEJM (Open Access)
#Levetiracetam, #fosphenytoin, #valproate
Article compendium The Bottom Line - ESETT
Abstract (Kapur 2019)
The choice of drugs for patients with status epilepticus that is refractory to treatment with benzodiazepines has not been thoroughly studied.
In a randomized, blinded, adaptive trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of three intravenous anticonvulsant agents — levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate — in children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus that was unresponsive to treatment with benzodiazepines. The primary outcome was absence of clinically evident seizures and improvement in the level of consciousness by 60 minutes after the start of drug infusion, without additional anticonvulsant medication. The posterior probabilities that each drug was the most or least effective were calculated. Safety outcomes included life-threatening hypotension or cardiac arrhythmia, endotracheal intubation, seizure recurrence, and death.
A total of 384 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive levetiracetam (145 patients), fosphenytoin (118), or valproate (121). Reenrollment of patients with a second episode of status epilepticus accounted for 16 additional instances of randomization. In accordance with a prespecified stopping rule for futility of finding one drug to be superior or inferior, a planned interim analysis led to the trial being stopped. Of the enrolled patients, 10% were determined to have had psychogenic seizures. The primary outcome of cessation of status epilepticus and improvement in the level of consciousness at 60 minutes occurred in 68 patients assigned to levetiracetam (47%; 95% credible interval, 39 to 55), 53 patients assigned to fosphenytoin (45%; 95% credible interval, 36 to 54), and 56 patients assigned to valproate (46%; 95% credible interval, 38 to 55). The posterior probability that each drug was the most effective was 0.41, 0.24, and 0.35, respectively. Numerically more episodes of hypotension and intubation occurred in the fosphenytoin group and more deaths occurred in the levetiracetam group than in the other groups, but these differences were not significant.
In the context of benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus, the anticonvulsant drugs levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate each led to seizure cessation and improved alertness by 60 minutes in approximately half the patients, and the three drugs were associated with similar incidences of adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ESETT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01960075
LEAP-2: Lefamulin vs Moxifloxacin for Community-Aquired Bacterial Pneumonia
Alexander E, Goldberg L, Das AF, et al. Oral Lefamulin vs Moxifloxacin for Early Clinical Response Among Adults With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: The LEAP 2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;322(17):1661-1671. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.15468
JAMA (Open Access)
Article compendium The Bottom Line - LEAP2
Abstract (Alexander 2019)
New antibacterials are needed to treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) because of growing antibacterial resistance and safety concerns with standard care.
To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of a 5-day oral lefamulin regimen in patients with CABP.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
A phase 3, noninferiority randomized clinical trial conducted at 99 sites in 19 countries that included adults aged 18 years or older with a Pneumonia Outcomes Research Team (PORT) risk class of II, III, or IV; radiographically documented pneumonia; acute illness; 3 or more CABP symptoms; and 2 or more vital sign abnormalities. The first patient visit was on August 30, 2016, and patients were followed up for 30 days; the final follow-up visit was on January 2, 2018.
Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive oral lefamulin (600 mg every 12 hours for 5 days; n = 370) or moxifloxacin (400 mg every 24 hours for 7 days; n = 368).
Main Outcomes and Measures:
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) primary endpoint was early clinical response at 96 hours (within a 24-hour window) after the first dose of either study drug in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (all randomized patients). Responders were defined as alive, showing improvement in 2 or more of the 4 CABP symptoms, having no worsening of any CABP symptoms, and not receiving any non-study antibacterial drug for current CABP episode. The European Medicines Agency coprimary endpoints (FDA secondary endpoints) were investigator assessment of clinical response at test of cure (5-10 days after last dose) in the modified ITT population and in the clinically evaluable population. The non inferiority margin was 10% for early clinical response and investigator assessment of clinical response.
Among 738 randomized patients (mean age, 57.5 years; 351 women [47.6%]; 360 had a PORT risk class of III or IV [48.8%]), 707 (95.8%) completed the trial. Early clinical response rates were 90.8% with lefamulin and 90.8% with moxifloxacin (difference, 0.1% [1-sided 97.5% CI, –4.4% to ∞]). Rates of investigator assessment of clinical response success were 87.5% with lefamulin and 89.1% with moxifloxacin in the modified ITT population (difference, –1.6% [1-sided 97.5% CI, –6.3% to ∞]) and 89.7% and 93.6%, respectively, in the clinically evaluable population (difference, –3.9% [1-sided 97.5% CI, –8.2% to ∞]) at test of cure. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal (diarrhea: 45/368 [12.2%] in lefamulin group and 4/368 [1.1%] in moxifloxacin group; nausea: 19/368 [5.2%] in lefamulin group and 7/368 [1.9%] in moxifloxacin group).
Conclusions and Relevance:
Among patients with CABP, 5-day oral lefamulin was noninferior to 7-day oral moxifloxacin with respect to early clinical response at 96 hours after first dose.
ROSE: Early neuromuscular blockade in ARDS
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute PETAL Clinical Trials Network, Moss M, Huang DT, et al. Early Neuromuscular Blockade in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(21):1997-2008. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1901686
NEJM (Open Access)
Article compendium The Bottom Line - ROSE
Abstract (ROSE trial 2019)
The benefits of early continuous neuromuscular blockade in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who are receiving mechanical ventilation remain unclear.
We randomly assigned patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS (defined by a ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen of <150 mm Hg with a positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] of ≥8 cm of water) to a 48-hour continuous infusion of cisatracurium with concomitant deep sedation (intervention group) or to a usual-care approach without routine neuromuscular blockade and with lighter sedation targets (control group). The same mechanical-ventilation strategies were used in both groups, including a strategy involving a high PEEP. The primary end point was in-hospital death from any cause at 90 days.
The trial was stopped at the second interim analysis for futility. We enrolled 1006 patients early after the onset of moderate-to-severe ARDS (median, 7.6 hours after onset). During the first 48 hours after randomization, 488 of the 501 patients (97.4%) in the intervention group started a continuous infusion of cisatracurium (median duration of infusion, 47.8 hours; median dose, 1807 mg), and 86 of the 505 patients (17.0%) in the control group received a neuromuscular blocking agent (median dose, 38 mg). At 90 days, 213 patients (42.5%) in the intervention group and 216 (42.8%) in the control group had died before hospital discharge (between-group difference, −0.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, −6.4 to 5.9; P=0.93). While in the hospital, patients in the intervention group were less physically active and had more adverse cardiovascular events than patients in the control group. There were no consistent between-group differences in end points assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months.
Among patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS who were treated with a strategy involving a high PEEP, there was no significant difference in mortality at 90 days between patients who received an early and continuous cisatracurium infusion and those who were treated with a usual-care approach with lighter sedation targets. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ROSE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02509078
Reversal of oral anticoagulation in intracerebral hemorrhage
Bower MM, Sweidan AJ, Shafie M, Atallah S, Groysman LI, Yu W. Contemporary Reversal of Oral Anticoagulation in Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Stroke. 2019;50(2):529-536. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023840
AHA (Open Access)
#VitaminK, #FreshFrozenPlasma, #ProthrombinComplexConcentrates, #Idarucizumab, #Andexanetalfa
Abstract (Bower 2019)
Introduction: (references removed)
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for ≈15% of all strokes and is associated with a high mortality rate and poor functional outcomes. The mortality rate of patients with ICH remains high at ≈34% in the United States, despite declining incidence in the past 2 decades. Oral anticoagulation is a common cause of ICH and will increase as the prevalence of atrial fibrillation is estimated to increase from 5.6 to 15.9 million by 2050 in an aging US population. Coagulopathy is an independent risk factor for mortality and poor functional outcome with hematoma expansion occurring within 1 hour in 25% of patients and within 4 hours in 88% of patients. One study identified that failure to reverse international normalized ratio (INR) within 2 hours was an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity.
These data illustrate the importance of rapid and effective coagulopathy reversal. This article will review the current anticoagulation options for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and the safety and efficacy of class-specific reversal of coagulopathy in patients with ICH. Andexanet alfa—the second NOAC-specific reversal agent after idarucizumab—was approved by the Food and Drug Administration early this year. We seek to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost of these new agents in comparison with older nonspecific reversal options.
The NACSTOP Trial: A Multicenter, Cluster-Controlled Trial of Early Cessation of Acetylcysteine in Acetaminophen Overdose
Wong A, McNulty R, Taylor D, et al. The NACSTOP Trial: A Multicenter, Cluster-Controlled Trial of Early Cessation of Acetylcysteine in Acetaminophen Overdose. Hepatology. 2019;69(2):774-784. doi:10.1002/hep.30224
#NAC, #acetylcysteine, #acetaminophen, #apap, #toxicology
Abstract (Wong 2019)
Historically, intravenous acetylcysteine has been delivered at a fixed dose and duration of 300 mg/kg over 20 to 21 hours to nearly every patient deemed to be at any risk for hepatotoxicity following acetaminophen overdose. We investigated a 12-hour treatment regimen for selected low-risk patients.
This was a multicenter, open-label, cluster-controlled trial at six metropolitan emergency departments. We enrolled subjects following single or staggered acetaminophen overdose with normal serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and creatinine on presentation and at 12 hours, and less than 20 mg/L acetaminophen at 12 hours.
Patients were allocated to intervention (250 mg/kg over 12-hour) or control (300 mg/kg over 20-hour) regimens by site.
The primary outcome was incidence of "hepatic injury" 20 hours following initiation of acetylcysteine treatment, defined as ALT doubling and peak ALT greater than 100 IU/L, indicating the need for further antidotal treatment.
Secondary outcomes included incidence of hepatotoxicity (ALT > 1,000 IU/L), peak international normalized ratio (INR), and adverse drug reactions. Of the 449 acetaminophen overdoses receiving acetylcysteine, 100 were recruited to the study. Time to acetylcysteine (median 7 hours [interquartile ratio 6,12] versus 7 hours [6,10]) and initial acetaminophen (124 mg/L [58,171] versus 146 mg/L [66,204]) were similar between intervention and control groups.
There was no difference in ALT (18 IU/L [13,22] versus 16 IU/L [13,21]) or INR (1.2 versus 1.2) 20 hours after starting acetylcysteine between groups. No patients developed hepatic injury or hepatotoxicity in either group (odds ratio 1.0 [95% confidence interval 0.02, 50]). No patients represented with liver injury, none died, and 96 of 96 were well at 14-day telephone follow-up.
Conclusion: Discontinuing acetylcysteine based on laboratory testing after 12 hours of treatment is feasible and likely safe in selected patients at very low risk of liver injury from acetaminophen overdose.
PARAMEDIC2: Epinephrine in OHCA
PARAMEDIC2 - Perkins GD, Ji C, Deakin CD, et al. A Randomized Trial of Epinephrine in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(8):711-721. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1806842
#epinephrine, #OHCA, #cardiacarrest, #resuscitation
Article compendium The Bottom Line - PARAMEDIC2
Abstract (Perkins 2018)
Background: Concern about the use of epinephrine as a treatment for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest led the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation to call for a placebo-controlled trial to determine whether the use of epinephrine is safe and effective in such patients.
Methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial involving 8014 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom, paramedics at five National Health Service ambulance services administered either parenteral epinephrine (4015 patients) or saline placebo (3999 patients), along with standard care. The primary outcome was the rate of survival at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included the rate of survival until hospital discharge with a favorable neurologic outcome, as indicated by a score of 3 or less on the modified Rankin scale (which ranges from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]).
Results: At 30 days, 130 patients (3.2%) in the epinephrine group and 94 (2.4%) in the placebo group were alive (unadjusted odds ratio for survival, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.82; P=0.02). There was no evidence of a significant difference in the proportion of patients who survived until hospital discharge with a favorable neurologic outcome (87 of 4007 patients [2.2%] vs. 74 of 3994 patients [1.9%]; unadjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.61). At the time of hospital discharge, severe neurologic impairment (a score of 4 or 5 on the modified Rankin scale) had occurred in more of the survivors in the epinephrine group than in the placebo group (39 of 126 patients [31.0%] vs. 16 of 90 patients [17.8%]).
Conclusions: In adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the use of epinephrine resulted in a significantly higher rate of 30-day survival than the use of placebo, but there was no significant between-group difference in the rate of a favorable neurologic outcome because more survivors had severe neurologic impairment in the epinephrine group. (Funded by the U.K. National Institute for Health Research and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN73485024 .).
Meta-analysis: tenecteplase versus alteplase for acute ischemic stroke
Kheiri B, Osman M, Abdalla A, et al. Tenecteplase versus alteplase for management of acute ischemic stroke: a pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2018;46(4):440-450. doi:10.1007/s11239-018-1721-3
#tenecteplase, #alteplase, #thrombolysis, #stroke
Abstract (Kheiri 2018)
Tenecteplase is a genetically mutated variant of alteplase with superior pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. However, its efficacy and safety in acute ischemic strokes are limited. Hence, we conducted a study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenecteplase compared with alteplase in acute ischemic stroke. Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing tenecteplase with alteplase in acute ischemic stroke patients eligible for thrombolysis.
We evaluated various efficacy and safety outcomes using random-effects models for both pairwise and Bayesian network meta-analyses along with meta-regression analyses. We included 5 RCTs with a total of 1585 patients.
Compared with alteplase, tenecteplase treatment was associated with significantly greater complete recanalization (odd ratio [OR] 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-3.87; p = 0.04) and early neurological improvement (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.03; p = 0.05).
There were no differences between the two thrombolytics in terms of excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0-1; OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.95-1.44; p = 0.13), functional independence (mRS 0-2; OR 1.24; 95% CI 0.78-1.98), poor recovery (mRS 4-6; OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.49-1.25; p = 0.31), complete/partial recanalization (OR 1.51; 95% CI 0.70-3.26; p = 0.30), any intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.56-1.17; p = 0.26), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.52-1.83; p = 0.94), or mortality (OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.54-1.26; p = 0.38).
In network meta-analysis, there were better efficacy and imaging-based outcomes with tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg without increased risk of safety outcomes.
Our results demonstrate that in acute ischemic stroke, thrombolysis with tenecteplase is at least as effective and safe as alteplase.
EXTEND IA TNK: Tenecteplase 0.25mg/kg versus alteplase 0.9mg/kg before thrombectomy for AIS
Campbell BCV, Mitchell PJ, Churilov L, et al. Tenecteplase versus Alteplase before Thrombectomy for Ischemic Stroke. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(17):1573-1582. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1716405
#tenecteplase, #alteplase, #thrombectomy, #thrombolysis, #stroke
Article compendium The Bottom Line - EXTEND IA TNK
Abstract (Campbell 2018)
Background: Intravenous infusion of alteplase is used for thrombolysis before endovascular thrombectomy for ischemic stroke. Tenecteplase, which is more fibrin-specific and has longer activity than alteplase, is given as a bolus and may increase the incidence of vascular reperfusion.
Methods: We randomly assigned patients with ischemic stroke who had occlusion of the internal carotid, basilar, or middle cerebral artery and who were eligible to undergo thrombectomy to receive tenecteplase (at a dose of 0.25 mg per kilogram of body weight; maximum dose, 25 mg) or alteplase (at a dose of 0.9 mg per kilogram; maximum dose, 90 mg) within 4.5 hours after symptom onset. The primary outcome was reperfusion of greater than 50% of the involved ischemic territory or an absence of retrievable thrombus at the time of the initial angiographic assessment. Noninferiority of tenecteplase was tested, followed by superiority. Secondary outcomes included the modified Rankin scale score (on a scale from 0 [no neurologic deficit] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. Safety outcomes were death and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.
Results: Of 202 patients enrolled, 101 were assigned to receive tenecteplase and 101 to receive alteplase. The primary outcome occurred in 22% of the patients treated with tenecteplase versus 10% of those treated with alteplase (incidence difference, 12 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2 to 21; incidence ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.4; P=0.002 for noninferiority; P=0.03 for superiority). Tenecteplase resulted in a better 90-day functional outcome than alteplase (median modified Rankin scale score, 2 vs. 3; common odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.8; P=0.04). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1% of the patients in each group.
Conclusions: Tenecteplase before thrombectomy was associated with a higher incidence of reperfusion and better functional outcome than alteplase among patients with ischemic stroke treated within 4.5 hours after symptom onset. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others; EXTEND-IA TNK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02388061 .).
SALT-ED: balanced crystalloids versus normal saline in the ED
Self WH, Semler MW, Wanderer JP, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Noncritically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(9):819-828. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1711586
#normal saline, #balanced crystalloids, #NaCl
Article compendium The Bottom Line - SALT-ED
Abstract (Self 2018)
Background: Comparative clinical effects of balanced crystalloids and saline are uncertain, particularly in noncritically ill patients cared for outside an intensive care unit (ICU).
Methods: We conducted a single-center, pragmatic, multiple-crossover trial comparing balanced crystalloids (lactated Ringer's solution or Plasma-Lyte A) with saline among adults who were treated with intravenous crystalloids in the emergency department and were subsequently hospitalized outside an ICU. The type of crystalloid that was administered in the emergency department was assigned to each patient on the basis of calendar month, with the entire emergency department crossing over between balanced crystalloids and saline monthly during the 16-month trial. The primary outcome was hospital-free days (days alive after discharge before day 28). Secondary outcomes included major adverse kidney events within 30 days - a composite of death from any cause, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as an elevation of the creatinine level to ≥200% of baseline) - all censored at hospital discharge or 30 days, whichever occurred first.
Results: A total of 13,347 patients were enrolled, with a median crystalloid volume administered in the emergency department of 1079 ml and 88.3% of the patients exclusively receiving the assigned crystalloid. The number of hospital-free days did not differ between the balanced-crystalloids and saline groups (median, 25 days in each group; adjusted odds ratio with balanced crystalloids, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.04; P=0.41). Balanced crystalloids resulted in a lower incidence of major adverse kidney events within 30 days than saline (4.7% vs. 5.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.95; P=0.01).
Conclusions: Among noncritically ill adults treated with intravenous fluids in the emergency department, there was no difference in hospital-free days between treatment with balanced crystalloids and treatment with saline. (Funded by the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and others; SALT-ED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02614040 .).
1. Minor head injury and vitamin K antagonists or direct oral (novel) anticoagulants
Riccardi A, Spinola B, Minuto P, et al. Intracranial complications after minor head injury (MHI) in patients taking vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35(9):1317-1319. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2017.03.072
#anticoagulants, #TBI, #warfarin, #acenocoumarol, #rivaroxaban, #apixaban, #dabigatran
Abstract (Riccardi 2017)
Introduction: The correlation between chronic direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) intake and the incidence of intracranial complications after minor head injury (MHI) is still not well defined. This study examined the incidence of complications in patients receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or DOACs observed in the emergency department (ED) for MHI.
Methods: Two hundred twenty-five patients affected by MHI and receiving oral anticoagulants were recorded between January and December 2016, distinguishing those treated with VKA (118) from those receiving DOACs (107). All patients underwent a CT scan and were observed for 24 h in the ED. Follow-up was performed up to 1 month after the head trauma.
Results: The rate of intracranial hemorrhage was significantly lower in patients treated with DOACs than in patients treated with VKA. We recorded 2 deaths among the 12 patients who experienced intracranial complications in the VKA group.
Discussion: DOACs seem to have a more favorable safety profile than VKA in patients affected by MHI. This observation is important in light of the increasing number of elderly patients who are receiving anticoagulant therapy.
2. Promotion of drugs for off-label uses and the US-FDA
Kim J, Kapczynski A. Promotion of Drugs for Off-label Uses: The US Food and Drug Administration at a Crossroads. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(2):157-158. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.7151
Abstract (Kim 2017)
Since 1962, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required companies to establish, with adequate and well-controlled clinical trials, a drug’s safety and efficacy for each intended use and has prohibited the “off-label” promotion of drugs. For companies to market an approved medicine for new indications, they must first conduct trials and submit data to establish safety and efficacy, as was the case for the initial approval.
The FDA’s approach to off-label promotion is in jeopardy, however. In response to recent US Supreme Court decisions strengthening First Amendment protection for companies, the pharmaceutical industry has framed off-label marketing as a free speech right. Drug companies have won several important court cases that have weakened the FDA’s authority to regulate off-label marketing. Although the legal issue—whether the FDA’s restrictions on off-label marketing are unconstitutional—remains unresolved, the agency has initiated a comprehensive review of its approach to off-label marketing. On November 9 and 10, 2016, the FDA will convene a public hearing to address “its regulations and policies governing firms’ communications about unapproved uses of approved/cleared medical products.”
1. Adverse events in procedural sedation in the ED (pediatrics)
Bellolio MF, Puls HA, Anderson JL, et al. Incidence of adverse events in paediatric procedural sedation in the emergency department: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016;6(6):e011384. Published 2016 Jun 15. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011384
BMJ Open (Open Access)
The table shows the incidence of adverse events per 1000 procedural sedations.
The most common adverse events (all reported per 1000 sedations) were: vomiting 55.5 (95% CI 45.2 to 65.8), followed by agitation 17.9 (95% CI 12.2 to 23.7), hypoxia 14.8 (95% CI 10.2 to 19.3) and apnoea 7.1 (95% CI 3.2 to 11.0). The incidence of severe respiratory events was 0 cases of aspiration among 3326 sedations, 4 intubations among 9136 sedations and 34 laryngospasms among 8687 sedations.
Abstract (Bellolio 2016 - Procedural sedation, pediatrics)
Objective and design: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of adverse events in the emergency department (ED) during procedural sedation in the paediatric population. Randomised controlled trials and observational studies from the past 10 years were included. We adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement.
Interventions: Procedural sedation.
Outcomes: Adverse events like vomiting, agitation, hypoxia and apnoea. Meta-analysis was performed with random-effects model and reported as incidence rates with 95% CIs.
Results: A total of 1177 studies were retrieved for screening and 258 were selected for full-text review. 41 studies reporting on 13 883 procedural sedations in 13 876 children (≤18 years) were included. The most common adverse events (all reported per 1000 sedations) were: vomiting 55.5 (CI 45.2 to 65.8), agitation 17.9 (CI 12.2 to 23.7), hypoxia 14.8 (CI 10.2 to 19.3) and apnoea 7.1 (CI 3.2 to 11.0). The need to intervene with either bag valve mask, oral airway or positive pressure ventilation occurred in 5.0 per 1000 sedations (CI 2.3 to 7.6). The incidences of severe respiratory events were: 34 cases of laryngospasm among 8687 sedations (2.9 per 1000 sedations, CI 1.1 to 4.7; absolute rate 3.9 per 1000 sedations), 4 intubations among 9136 sedations and 0 cases of aspiration among 3326 sedations. 33 of the 34 cases of laryngospasm occurred in patients who received ketamine.
Conclusions: Serious adverse respiratory events are very rare in paediatric procedural sedation in the ED. Emesis and agitation are the most frequent adverse events. Hypoxia, a late indicator of respiratory depression, occurs in 1.5% of sedations. Laryngospasm, though rare, happens most frequently with ketamine. The results of this study provide quantitative risk estimates to facilitate shared decision-making, risk communication, informed consent and resource allocation in children undergoing procedural sedation in the ED.
2. Adverse events in procedural sedation in the ED (adults)
Bellolio MF, Gilani WI, Barrionuevo P, et al. Incidence of Adverse Events in Adults Undergoing Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Acad Emerg Med. 2016;23(2):119-134. doi:10.1111/acem.12875
Acad Emerg Med (Open Access)
#pain, #analgosedation, #ketamine, #propofol, #etomidate, #midazolam, #fentanyl
The table shows the incidence of adverse events per 1,000 sedations.
The most frequent events were hypoxia, vomiting, hypotension, and apnea. Hypoxia occurred in 40.2 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI=32.5 to 47.9); vomiting, 16.4 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI=9.7 to 23.0); hypotension, 15.2 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI=10.7 to19.7); and apnea 12.4 per 1,000 (95% CI=7.9 to 16.9).
Abstract (Bellolio 2016 - Procedural sedation, adults)
Objectives: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of adverse events in adults undergoing procedural sedation in the emergency department (ED).
Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, and Scopus, from January 2005 through 2015. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults undergoing procedural sedation in the ED that reported a priori selected outcomes and adverse events were included. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model and reported as incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results: The search yielded 2,046 titles for review. Fifty-five articles were eligible, including 9,652 procedural sedations. The most common adverse event was hypoxia, with an incidence of 40.2 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI = 32.5 to 47.9), followed by vomiting with 16.4 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI = 9.7 to 23.0) and hypotension with 15.2 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI = 10.7 to 19.7). Severe adverse events requiring emergent medical intervention were rare, with one case of aspiration in 2,370 sedations (1.2 per 1,000), one case of laryngospasm in 883 sedations (4.2 per 1,000), and two intubations in 3,636 sedations (1.6 per 1,000). The incidence of agitation and vomiting were higher with ketamine (164.1 per 1,000 and 170.0 per 1,000, respectively). Apnea was more frequent with midazolam (51.4 per 1,000), and hypoxia was less frequent in patients who received ketamine/propofol compared to other combinations. The case of laryngospasm was in a patient who received ketamine, and the aspiration and intubations were in patients who received propofol. When propofol and ketamine are combined, the incidences of agitation, apnea, hypoxia, bradycardia, hypotension, and vomiting were lower compared to each medication separately.
Conclusions: Serious adverse events during procedural sedation like laryngospasm, aspiration, and intubation are exceedingly rare. Quantitative risk estimates are provided to facilitate shared decision-making, risk communication, and informed consent.
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