Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Introduction and pathophysiology (1)

Pathogenesis of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. FFA=free fatty acids. (2).

Diagnosis criteria (1)

There is no universal consensus on diagnostic criteria for diabetic emergencies.

A summary of the criteria from different guidelines is shown below:

Diabetic ketoacidosis criteria in adults (2)

Hyperosmolar state criteria in adults (2)


Principles of diabetic ketoacidosis management in adults (2)

Intravenous fluids



Identify/treat reason for DKA and prevent recurrence.

ADA = recommendations in the American Diabetes Association guideline.
UK = recommendation in the Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care guideline.

Principles of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) management in adult patients (2)

Intravenous fluids 



Identify/treat reason for HHS and prevent recurrence.

ADA=recommendations in the American Diabetes Association guideline
UK=recommendation in the Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care guideline

Criteria for resolution of hyperglycemic diabetic emergencies (2)

Related drugs, References, Further reading

Related drugs


Further reading

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